ADHD linked with obesity

adhdA new report, published in the Mayo Clinic Proceedings, has associated obesity and ADHD ().

Previous research has correlated ADHD and obesity due to underlying behavioral, neurobiological and genetic mechanisms that overlap, due to an etiologic pathway. The possible interaction is linked to too much nutrition and cognitive hyper-stimulation contributing to obesity.

Obesity has been linked to in teens. Behavorial factors associated with ADHD may involve the inattention and impulsivity characteristics of ADHD, leading to irregular eating patterns. Dopamine reltaed systems or brain neurotropic factors are involved with genetic and neurological dysfunction.

The research population consisted of 336 individuals, born between 1976-1982, who were diagnosed with ADHD during childhood. The study compared 665 non-ADHD control subjects of the same age and sex. The data analyzed consisted of weight, height and details of stimulant treatments accessed from medical records for 1976-2010. Cox models were used to assess the link between ADHD and obesity.

The research findings reveal that females diagnosed with childhood ADHD had double the risk of obesity of developing obesity during childhood and adulthood, compared with females who did not have ADHD.

“Females with ADHD are at risk of developing obesity during adulthood, and stimulant medications used to treat ADHD do not appear to alter that risk.”

The researchers recommend that all ADHD patients have a healthy and active lifestyle as a .

The researchers encourage all patients with ADHD to ensure they eat healthily and have an active lifestyle, in order to prevent obesity.

A prior study, by the Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, published in the journal of Heliyon, has revealed that paying attention, being in the present moment with acceptance and having a purpose is an effective way to avoid obesity in children.

Identifying children at risk for obesity early on and using mindfulness approaches to control eating may be one way to approach weight management as long lasting weight loss requires changes in how the brain functions.

“We know the brain plays a big role in obesity in adults, but what we understand about the neurological connections associated with obesity might not apply to children,” explained lead author BettyAnn Chodkowski, from Vanderbilt University School of Medicine. “We wanted to look at the way children’s brains function in more detail so we can better understand what is happening neurologically in children who are obese.”

The scientists identified three areas of the brain that may be associated with weight and eating habits: the inferior parietal lobe, which is associated with , the ability to override an automatic response (in this case eating); the frontal pole, which is associated with impulsivity; and the nucleus accumbens, which is associated with reward.

The data analyzed was obtained by the Enhanced Nathan Kline Institute and consisted of data from 38 children aged 8-13. Data included children’s weights and their answers to the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, which describes the children’s eating habits. The researchers also used MRI scans that showed the function of the three regions of the brain they wanted to study.

“Adults, and especially children, are primed towards eating more,” said Dr. Niswender, from Vanderbilt University School of Medicine. “This is great from an evolutionary perspective — they need food to grow and survive. But in today’s world, full of readily available, highly advertised, energy dense foods, it is putting children at risk of obesity.”

The study findings revealed a preliminary link between weight, eating behavior and balance in . Impulsivity is increased in children who behave in ways that make them eat more. Being impulsive appears to be more strongly connected than the part of the brain associated with ; in children who behave in ways that help them avoid food, the part of the brain associated with is more strongly connected compared to the part of the brain associated with being impulsive.

“We think mindfulness could recalibrate the imbalance in the brain connections associated with childhood obesity,” said Dr. Cowan, from Vanderbilt University School of Medicine. “Mindfulness has produced mixed results in adults, but so far there have been few studies showing its effectiveness for weight loss in children.”

Source

1.BettyAnn A. Chodkowski, Ronald L. Cowan, Kevin D. Niswender. Imbalance in resting state functional connectivity is associated with eating behaviors and adiposity in children. Heliyon, 2016; 2 (1): e00058 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2015.e00058

Obesity and ADHD: clinical and neurobiological implications, Samuele Cortese et al., Behavioral neuroscience of disorder and its treatment, doi: 10.1007/7854_2011_154, published 16 August 2011.

Obesity and ADHD may represent different manifestations of a common environmental oversampling syndrome: a model for revealing mechanistic overlap among cognitive, metabolic, and inflammatory disorders, Kimberly A. Bazar et al., Medical hypotheses, doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2005.02.042, published 2006.

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