Parkinson’s disease is a debilitating neurological progressive disease that affects a small area of cells within the mid-brain known as the substantia nigra. The gradual degeneration of these cells causes a reduction in a vital chemical neurotransmitter, dopamine. The decrease in dopamine results in one or more of the classic signs of Parkinson’s disease that includes: resting tremor on one side of the body; generalized slowness of movement; stiffness of limbs; and gait or balance problems. The exact cause of the disease is unknown although both environmental and genetic causes of the disease have been postulated.
Cinnamon has been found to reverse the biochemical, cellular and anatomical changes that occur in the brains of mice with Parkinson’s disease (PD). The results of the study by the Rush University Medical Center have been published in Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology.
Parkinson’s disease is a debilitating neurological condition which affects about 1.2 million patients in the United States and Canada.
“Cinnamon has been used widely as a spice throughout the world for centuries,” said Kalipada Pahan, PhD, study lead researcher and the Floyd A. Davis professor of neurology at Rush. “This could potentially be one of the safest approaches to halt disease progression in Parkinson’s patients.”
The study determined that after oral administration, ground cinnamon is metabolized into sodium benzoate, which then enters into the brain, protects neurons, halts the loss of Parkin and DJ-1, normalizes neurotransmitter levels, and improves motor functions in mice with PD.
“Cinnamon is metabolized in the liver to sodium benzoate, which is an FDA-approved drug used in the treatment for hepatic metabolic defects associated with hyperammonemia,” said Pahan. It is also widely used as a food preservative due to its microbiocidal effect.
Chinese cinnamon (Cinnamonum cassia) and original Ceylon cinnamon (Cinnamonum verum) are two major types of cinnamon that are available in the US.
“Although both types of cinnamon are metabolized into sodium benzoate, by mass spectrometric analysis, we have seen that Ceylon cinnamon is much more pure than Chinese cinnamon as the latter contains coumarin, a hepatotoxic molecule,” said Pahan.
“Understanding how the disease works is important to developing effective drugs that protect the brain and stop the progression of PD,” said Pahan. “It is known that some important proteins like Parkin and DJ-1 decrease in the brain of PD patients.”
Saurabh Khasnavis, Kalipada Pahan. Cinnamon Treatment Upregulates Neuroprotective Proteins Parkin and DJ-1 and Protects Dopaminergic Neurons in a Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease. Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology, 2014; DOI: 10.1007/s11481-014-9552-2
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