Processed red meat increases risk of heart disease in men.

processedA study originating from the Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, Sweden, points to red meat as the culprit for cardiovascular disease in men. The study is particularly relevant to the U.S. as almost 6 million Americans have and about 50 percent die within five years of diagnosis.

The research, published in the , examined the effects of processed red meat compared to unprocessed meat in 37,035 men 45-79 years old with no history of , ischemic or cancer. Research participants completed a questionnaire on food intake and other and researchers followed them, for 12 years, from 1998 to the date of diagnosis, death or the end of the study in 2010.Processed meat questions focused on of sausages, cold cuts (ham/salami), blood pudding/sausages and liver pate over the last year. Unprocessed meat questions covered pork and beef/veal, including hamburger or ground-minced meat.

Processed meats are preserved by smoking, curing, salting or adding preservatives and include cold cuts (ham, salami), sausage, bacon and hot dogs.

“Processed red meat commonly contains sodium, nitrates, phosphates and other food additives, and smoked and grilled meats also contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, all of which may contribute to the increased risk,” said Alicja Wolk, D.M.Sc., senior author of the study and professor in the Division of Nutritional Epidemiology at the Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, Sweden. “Unprocessed meat is free from food additives and usually has a lower amount of sodium.”

The findings reveal that was diagnosed in 2,891 men and 266 died from ; with men who ate the most processed red meat (75 grams per day or more) revealing a 28 percent higher risk of compared to men who ate the least (25 grams per day or less) after adjusting for multiple lifestyle variables.

Men who ate the most processed red meat had a 50% increased risk of death from compared to men in the lowest category. The rate was dose dependent, depending on the amount of processed meat . For each 50 gram (e.g. 1-2 slices of ham) increase in daily of processed meat, the risk of incidence increased by 8 percent and the risk of death from by 38 percent.

“To reduce your risk of and other cardiovascular diseases, we suggest avoiding processed red meat in your diet, and limiting the amount of unprocessed red meat to one to two servings per week or less,” said Joanna Kaluza, Ph.D., study lead author and in the Department of at Warsaw University of Life Sciences in . “Instead, eat a diet rich in fruit, vegetables, whole grain products, nuts and increase your servings of .”

Source

Joanna Kaluza, Agneta Åkesson, and Alicja Wolk. Processed and Unprocessed Red Meat and Risk of : A Prospective Study of Men. Circ Heart Fail., June 12 2014 DOI: 10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.113.000921

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