Risk of heart attack increased by skipping breakfast

The adage that breakfast is the most important meal of the day has been confirmed by a recent study published in the journal of the American Heart Association that found that skipping breakfast had a higher risk of heart attack or death from coronary disease. Adverse metabolic events were linked to the timing of the meal even after accounting for minor differences in diet, physical activity, smoking and other lifestyle factors.

Researchers analyzed data and tracked health outcomes for 16 years (1992-2008) on 26,902 45-82. They found:

•Men who reported they skipped breakfast had a 27 percent higher risk of heart attack or death from than those who reported they didn’t.

•The men who reported not eating breakfast were younger than those who did, and were more likely to be smokers, employed full time, unmarried, less physically active and drank more alcohol.

•Men who reported (eating after going to bed) had a 55 percent higher than those who didn’t. But researchers were less convinced this was a major public health concern because few men in the study reported this behavior.

•During the study, 1,572 of the men had first-time cardiac events.

“Skipping breakfast may lead to one or more risk factors, including obesity, high blood pressure, and diabetes, which may in turn lead to a heart attack over time,” said Leah E. Cahill, Ph.D., study lead author and Postdoctoral Research Fellow in the Department of Nutrition at in Boston, Mass. “Our study group has spent decades studying the health effects of and composition, and now this new data also suggests overall dietary habits can be important to lower risk of ,” said , Sc.D., senior author and Associate Professor of Epidemiology and Nutrition, and Associate Professor of Medicine at the Harvard Medical School.

Men who reported eating breakfast ate on average one more time per day than those who skipped breakfast, implying that those who abstained from breakfast were not eating additional make-up meals later in the day. Although there was some overlap between those who skipped breakfast and those who ate late at night, 76 percent of late-night eaters also ate breakfast, researchers said. The study collected comprehensive from the participants and accounted for many important factors such as TV watching, physical activity, sleep, , alcohol intake, medical history, BMI, and social factors like whether or not the men worked full-time, were married, saw their doctor regularly for physical exams, or smoked currently or in the past. While the current study group was composed of men who were of 97 percent white European descent, the results should also apply to women and other ethnic groups, but this should be tested in additional studies, researchers said.

“Don’t skip breakfast,” Cahill said. “Eating breakfast is associated with a decreased risk of heart attacks. Incorporating many types of healthy foods into your breakfast is an easy way to ensure your meal provides adequate energy and a healthy balance of nutrients, such as protein, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. For example, adding nuts and chopped fruit to a bowl of whole grain cereal or steel-cut oatmeal in the morning is a great way to start the day.”

SOURCE

  1. L. E. Cahill, S. E. Chiuve, R. A. Mekary, M. K. Jensen, A. J. Flint, F. B. Hu, E. B. Rimm. Prospective Study of Breakfast Eating and Incident in a Cohort of Male US Health Professionals. Circulation, 2013; 128 (4): 337 DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.001474

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