Salt increases blood pressure. New study identifies safety mechanism.

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A collaborative study, initiated by McGill University, has identified how salt increases blood pressure. The study determined that salt in essence reprograms the brain and excessive amounts interferes with a natural safety mechanism that prevents blood pressure from rising.

were used in this experiment and the findings reflect that high salt intake prevents the of vasopressin (VP) releasing neurons by the body’s arterial pressure detection circuit. The circuit acts as a natural safety mechanism and allows blood pressure to rise when a high amount of salt is ingested over a long period of time.

Vasopressin is a hormone secreted by of the hypothalamic nuclei and stored in the posterior pituitary for release as necessary; it stimulates contraction of the muscular tissues of the capillaries and arterioles, raising the blood pressure, and increases peristalsis, exerts some influence on the uterus, and influences resorption of water by the tubules, resulting in concentration of urine. Its rate of secretion is regulated chiefly by the osmolarity of the plasma.

“We found that a period of high dietary salt intake in rats causes a biochemical change in the neurons that release vasopressin (VP) into the systemic circulation”, said Prof. Charles Bourque of McGill’s Faculty of Medicine who is also a at the The Institute of the McGill University Centre (RI-MUHC). “This change, which involves a neurotrophic molecule called BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), prevents the of these particular neurons by other ”.

The researchers recommend that dietary salt be limited.

Source

High salt intake increases blood pressure via BDNF-mediated downregulation of KCC2 and impaired baroreflex of vasopressin neurons, Katrina Y. Choe, et al., Neuron, doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2014.12.048, published online 22 January 2015, abstract.

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