Six letter double helix model, has added a whole new dimension to Frankenstein genetics

zpnucelFrankenstein genetics has taken on a whole new concept with the synthesis of two new nucleotides called P and Z. The genetic code has traditionally been associated with the ACGT and U combination. The letters stand for the nucleotide bases adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine. Uracil commonly replaces thymine in RNA. The nucleotides form what is commonly referred to as a double helix.

Researchers have for the first time demonstrated that the Z-P pairs can integrate with the traditional double helix structure, forming a six-letter nucleotide double helix model (GACTZP). The purpose of this study was to develop an solution for , and allow binding to .

The study found over a dozen binding studies with Z and or P nucleotides in sequences, created new alternatives for protein recognition. However, manipulation of the genetic code and synthesis of nucleotides without testing the adverse impact and ability to bind to numerous transferases with suspect enzyme activity may allow significant and harmful mutations to occur.

DNA mutations have been associated with significant oxidative stress and have been linked to a number of .


Millie M. Georgiadis, Isha Singh, Whitney F. Kellett, Shuichi Hoshika, Steven A. Benner, Nigel G. J. Richards. Structural Basis for a Six Nucleotide Genetic Alphabet. Journal of the , 2015; 150519090051005 DOI: 10.1021/jacs.5b03482

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