Metabolic syndrome is characterized by a cluster of symptoms including a large waistline, high levels of triglyceride, low density lipoprotein and high fasting sugar. It has become a pervasive health syndrome with approximately 34% of Americans suffering from Metabolic Syndrome.
A research team from Goergia State University and Cornell University has previously found that altered gut microbiota plays a vital role in regulating metabolic syndrome as well as promoting Chrohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. The team followed up on prior studies and has detailed the metabolic pathway involved which includes the TLR5 gene. A mouse model was used to demonstrate that altered gut microbiota that promotes inflammation is more aggressive than other bacteria in infiltrating the epithelium. Some of the mice were missing the TRL5 gene, resulting in alterations in the inflammation driving bacteria that promoted metabolic syndrome.
“It’s the loss of TLR5 on the epithelium; the cells that line the surface of the intestine and their ability to quickly respond to bacteria. That ability goes away and results in a more aggressive bacterial population that gets closer in and produces substances that drive inflammation,” said Dr. Andrew Gewirtz, a professor in the Institute for Biomedical Sciences at Georgia State.
The study suggests that promoting healthy gut microbiota can treat and prevent metabolic disease. Altered microbiota can promote low-grade inflammation and metabolic syndrome and advance the underlying mechanism.
Previous studies have revealed that diet may impact on metabolic syndrome by altering gut bacteria. A Mediterranean diet has been found to be effective in reversing metabolic syndrome.
Intestinal Epithelial Cell Toll-like Receptor 5 Regulates the Intestinal Microbiota to Prevent Low-Grade Inflammation and Metabolic Syndrome in Mice, Benoit Chassaing, Ruth E. Ley, Andrew T. Gewirtz, Gastroenterology, DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2014.08.033, published online 26 August 2014, abstract.