New diabetic treatment holds the promise of a complete reversal of Type 1 Diabetes. Researchers from the the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), have shown for the first time that it is possible to cure diabetes in large animals with a single session of gene therapy.
The research was published this week in Diabetes, and revealed that after a single gene therapy session, the dogs recover their health and no longer show symptoms of the disease. In some cases, monitoring continued for over four years, with no recurrence of symptoms.
The therapy is minimally invasive. It consists of a single session of various injections in the animal’s rear legs using simple needles that are commonly used in cosmetic treatments. These injections introduce gene therapy vectors, with a dual objective: to express the insulin gene, on the one hand, and that of glucokinase, on the other. Glucokinase is an enzyme that regulates the uptake of glucose from the blood. When both genes act simultaneously they function as a “glucose sensor,” which automatically regulates the uptake of glucose from the blood, thus reducing diabetic hyperglycemia (the excess of blood sugar associated with the disease).
This same research group had already tested this type of therapy on mice, but the excellent results obtained for the first time with large animals lays the foundations for the clinical translation of this gene therapy approach to veterinary medicine and eventually to diabetic patients.
Fàtima Bosch, the head researcher, stated, “this study is the first to demonstrate a long-term cure for diabetes in a large animal model using gene therapy.”
Dogs treated with a single administration of gene therapy showed good glucose control at all times, both when fasting and when fed, improving on that of dogs given daily insulin injections, and with no episodes of hypoglycemia, even after exercise.
Furthermore, the dogs treated with adeno-associated vectors improved their body weight and had not developed secondary complications four years after the treatment.
The study is the first to report optimal long-term control of diabetes in large animals. This had never before been achieved with any other innovative therapies for diabetes. The study is also the first to report that a single administration of genes to diabetic dogs is able to maintain normoglycemia over the long term (more than 4 years). As well as achieving normoglycemia, the dogs had normal levels of glycosylated proteins and developed no secondary complications of diabetes after more than 4 years with the disease.
D. Callejas, C. J. Mann, E. Ayuso, R. Lage, I. Grifoll, C. Roca, A. Andaluz, R. Ruiz-de Gopegui, J. Montane, S. Munoz, T. Ferre, V. Haurigot, S. Zhou, J. Ruberte, F. Mingozzi, K. High, F. Garcia, F. Bosch. Treatment of Diabetes and Long-term Survival Following Insulin and Glucokinase Gene Therapy. Diabetes, 2013; DOI: 10.2337/db12-1113